EARLY POINT DUTY IN WESTERN SUBURBS.
Leo Minahan performing point duty at the intersection of Henley Beach Road with Taylors Road &Fisher Terrace in front of Thebarton Primary & Technical School. Looking north towards the Queen of Angels Church C about 1939. This location did not normally have a point duty Constable controlling traffic & it is believed that this may have been a special occasion such as a parade or a funeral or even an introduction to "traffic control" away from the heavy traffic in the city of Adelaide.
I hope all our members enjoyed Happy Christmas and New Year celebrations.
There is no monthly meeting for January the 6th 2006, so our next meeting will be the Annual General Meeting on Friday the 3rd February. I hope to see our usual large crowd of members.
I am currently compiling my 2nd Annual Report which hopefully will cover the activities of the Society over the previous 12 months and Tony is working on his Treasurers Report.
As usual, positions for the executive committee will be declared vacant and if necessary elections held for various offices. If any member would like to contribute in this area, please fill in a nomination form, (posted in December's Hue and Cry) and forward to the Secretary. These must be lodged prior to the 27th January 2006.
December has been a quieter month with many volunteers on holidays (yes we do let them go on holidays). Our Christmas dinner was the biggest yet, & if you have any feedback regarding the dinner please forward them to the Secretary whether they are positive or negative, or if you have any suggestions for next year.
We are about to take possession of a large collection of documents, found in the basement of the Gawler courthouse, which relate to police activities from the middle 1800s. From what I have seen so far, these will be of great interest, with copperplate writing and letters from that early part of our history. As there is a large quantity it will take some time to go through this important collection and fully assess it.
Rex Greig has been busy with the difficult task of repairing the grille of the FJ preparing it for re-chroming. The long job of restoring the FJ is hopefully coming near it's end and we hope to see this vehicle in parades this coming year thanks to the efforts of Rex & his team.
I hope to see you all at the AGMGeoff Rawson
Christies Beach Christmas pageant.
WHO WERE THE REAL EXPLORERS?
By Chas Hopkins
After perusing the old letter books and journals at the country Police Stations, it is very evident that the early country Police greatly assisted in the development of the State. In many instances, a Police presence coincided with the development of each small community, and this was prompted by the Government to ensure harmony with the tribal aborigines, and at the same time, providing them with protection from unscrupulous settlers. It was also interesting to note that many of our early explorers and surveyors of the inland areas, sought the assistance of our members, due to their bush-craft, and knowledge of the tribal aborigines and their customs. In addition they had often already been in the general areas and had established camp sites and located water holes. Our members were stationed at Outposts in the Flinders Ranges when McDougall Stuart made his epic journey, which culminated in crossing the Continent from South to North in 1860. Edward John Eyre also made use of Police when he was Protector of Aborigines in this State, and visited and documented the customs and other characteristics of each tribe. Sir Charles Todd had a Police Officer [Trooper Ewens] accompany him when surveying the telegraph line from Portland to Adelaide.
Edward John Eyre
After the Melbourne Expedition, which included that of Burke & Wills' attempts to cross the country in the early 1860's, other Melbourne Expeditions followed in an endeavour to establish the fate of the former. It was perhaps surprising that the Victorian Government requested South Australian Police to convey despatches to and from the Expedition Parties from the Cooper Creek area. At that time, the Mount Searle Police Station was the nearest, but it was in excess of 200 miles from where the Expeditions were based. A large portion of the area comprised of sand hills with no reliable water holes. However, despite these obstacles, the despatches were transmitted via a relay system to Adelaide.
There is documented evidence of police troopers in the early 1840's pursuing felons deep into hitherto unexplored country which had never previously been set foot upon by a white person. In another incident a Trooper was ordered to explore the country to the west and seek out favourable pastoral lands.
BY JONATHON ANDERSON
JONATHON Anderson is a Detective with the Onondaga County, NY, Sherrif’s offiice & is currently assigned to the Professional Standards Unit.
On September 29, 1829, the inhabitants of London were witness to a new and impressive, yet imposing sight. Six hundred uniformed men marched from the back of number Four Whitehall Place onto a little street known as Scotland Yard, with the resolute intent of imposing law and order. Dressed in single breasted blue
jackets and tall chimney pot hats, these "Raw Lobsters" or "Blue Devils" as they were nicknamed, represented a new uniformed police presence on the streets of a soulless city.
At the time, London, like many England's 19th Century cities, was reeling from the ill effects of the industrial revolution. Crime flourished as population rapidly grew in the urban settings. Filthy and overcrowded, slums spread rapidly and the city was wracked with violence, riots and lawlessness.British Home Secretary, Sir Robert Peel recognized the poor quality of the police watch system contributed to the urban social disorder.
In an effort to relieve a lawless city besieged by crime, Peel persuaded Parliament to pass the Metropolitan Police Act for the purpose of reorganizing & improving London's police force.
Ironically, Peel's radical strategy was not universally accepted. It threatened the appearance of a militarily occupation of civil society and state tyranny.
However, the effectiveness of these early police would soon earn them public favour and the more common nickname, "Peelers." With time, this reference towards Sir Robert Peel would evolve into a first name reference, and the term "Bobby" earned public endorsement.
This first name reference was a reflection of the close association that grew between these police and the community they served. This has remained a proud policing legacy.
The ultimate success of Peel's reforms proved profound, and they would come to revolutionize the field of policing into an honoured and respected profession. Peel's fundamental principles for enforcement organization are easily recognizable today.
The police must be under government control. The police must be stable, efficient and organized along military lines. Police headquarters should be centrally located and easily accessible to the people. The deployment of police strength, both in time and area, is essential, as is the distribution of crime news. Public security demands every police officer be given a number. Policemen should be hired on a probationary basis. The prevention of crime is a higher duty than the detection of criminals. The absence of crime will best prove the efficiency of the police.
Perhaps the most thought provoking of Peel's fundamental principals were those regarding personal character the securing and training of proper persons is at the root of efficiency; good appearance commands
respect; no quality is more indispensable to a policeman than a perfect command of temper; a quiet determined manner has more effect than violent action. The selection process for the early Peelers was meticulous and scrutinizing. Personal merit and an impeccable character were important considerations for candidate
selection. Candidates were even required to stand naked before a selection board in order to judge unmasked physique, and to exclude the timid. With an under standing that discipline built effective performance, once
selected, officers were bound by what has been referred to as an Iron Discipline.
Peel's reforms, particularly in regards to discipline, were not only intended to promote and preserve the public peace, but to preserve and promote the public trust. Prior to these reforms, the public's faith in the existing police watch systems was faint - and with good reason.
The watch & ward men were required to walk their district only once every twenty four hours. Anything above that effort was periodic at best. Many constables actually evaded their annual appointed police service by paying substitutes or deputies to perform duties in their place.
These substitutes were often ill paid, incompetent, elderly, decrepit and essentially ineffective.
Initially the public's lack of trust in the Peelers was evident, and they bore the brunt of chastisement by a general public irreverence. Never the less, their vigilance persevered and it was their iron discipline that eventually ensured a sceptical public the police could be trusted to perform duties faithfully and with effect. It was this vigilance and iron discipline that remains an essential element of the community orientation that has become the focus of contemporary policing.
The significance of promoting and maintaining the public trust is no less important today than it was for the early Peelers of 1829 London. Considering the growing attention directed towards more community based policing, police accountability to the public remains directly influenced and determined by the public
co-operation and support.
That criteria can only be attained by earning public confidence and trust in its police service. That credibility, although hard earned, is a fragile virtue that is easily eroded by seemingly isolated incidents of police misconduct. In a very real sense, the appropriateness of labelling even a specific misconduct incident as “isolated” is arguable. Unfortunately, the public's perception of police misconduct issue goes far beyond recognising the specific nature of individual incidents.
Such issues are instead associated with a collective policing image. This phenomenon illustrates a critical need for the police to promote the awareness of ethical standards both within the police and public communities.
Like the early peelers, the police of today are walking a beat of seemingly soulless society that seems to have trouble transmitting healthy values.
Police are continually immersed in an unforgiving virulent world that breeds disillusionment, frustration, cynicism, burnout and exposes one to the tempting seductions of self destructive behaviour. It is a profession that continually places limits and vulnerability of human frailty in the view of a scrutinising public eye. Yet, it is a profession that perpetually demands the highest moral and ethical standard.
As providence would have it, the iron discipline that Sir Robert Peel advocated still remains an effective remedy against the arduous nature of the profession, both on a personal and organisational front. Yet, the phrase Iron Discipline rightfully indicates such a virtue is not easily attained: it must be wrought into shape through training and practice. Still, the forging process itself serves as a catalyst for the preservation of the policing spirit and a privileged professional image. As such, Iron Discipline remains more than a mere desired virtue; it has also earned the rightful claim to be regarded as an honoured policing tradition.
(Printed with kind permission of the
Publishers of USA Law & Order Magazine.)
Our November Cover Photo purported to be of the Richmond Police Station has caused quite a deal of interest. We have had several Emails pointing out that the date (1930’s 40’s) cannot be correct as there are no telegraph poles & horse & carts appear to be the mode of transport. Several of our older members, who lived in the area in their youth, have queried it's origin. Also John Phillips whose father was stationed at Richmond advises that this is not his father's station. West Torrens Council have not been able to throw any light on the subject. The mystery continues
Man arrives as a novice at each age of his life
ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING
3rd FEBRUARY, 2006.
Compiled by Allen Cliff
Mail coaches first started operating between Adelaide and the southeast in 1851.
Ebenezer Ward in his book, "The South-eastern Districts of South Australia",published in I 869, gives a vivid account of the perils of the coach travellers.
Ward writes, "The mail is advertised to leave the General Post Office at l0-3Opm, and 10.15 pm precisely I was there, but mail drivers are sometimes curiously independant, and while I was in the hooking office securing a seat,the mail driver having obtained the bags from the Post Office galloped offjust ten minutes before his time".
Ward and his friend who had brought him to the Post Office, then set out in a chase of the mail coach. Ward goes on:- "how we swung around corners and didn’t knock down some unwary pedestrians as we tore through the labyrinth of narrow streets which are supposed to afford a near cut to Glen Osmond Road, 1 never knew. Once on a clear course, my friends ecstasy was perfect, and we rattled along merrily at a pace which must have astonished the stately municipal trees which line the road. Now a dark form looms ahead and by the lights it hears we know it is the mail coach".
On the first 50 miles from Adelaide to Milang, Ward says nothing more, than it took five and a half hours.
The old route to the southeast was through Wellington, but Ward explains that, "you now leave the coach on the shore of Lake Alexandrina and the the traveller who for a whole night has been endeavouring to sleep ,the opportunity to stretch and yawn without restriction becomes the very luxury of life".
The Mails were made up at the Milang Post Office and passengers then boarded the L.A.S.N.Co's steamer the "Telegraph", for the five hour run across the lakes. Passengers slept during the journey, washed, breakfasted, and disembarked at Meningie must be noted that this trip must have taken place in the mid sixties as Meningie was not established until 1863.]. There were two accommodation houses at Meningie arid public houses a McGrath's Flat, Woods Well, Chinaman's well and Salt Creek.
Ward continues his description of the journey, "Along most of its distance, when the Coorong is at its lowest and the outer edges of the bed are dry, you have a splendid road upon its pipe clay bottom, and passengers are then warmed out of their resignation to, "Mail Miseries", by the excitement of the slashing gallop over the tempting course
When the stream is higher this luxury is impracticable and you must instead, pled drearily along the sandy track on the ridges and the slushy surface of the fiats". The current thought at the time was that the expenditure of a few thousand pounds would render the Coorong permanently navigable for steamers and barges as tar as Salt Creek.
The Advertiser of the 28th February 1851 ,reported that Mr.Williarn Rounsevell would commence running a conveyance from Adelaide to Lacepede Bay. Rounsvell sold to Cobb and Co who in turn later sold it to Hill & Co. Staging Stations on the Adelaide to Kingston run were as follows: Aldgate ,Mylor ,Echunga ,Mullgundawa ,Wellingto, Ashfleld, [now Ashville], Meningie, McGrath's
Flat, Woods Well, Salt Creek, Cantara, Coolatoo, White Hill, and Kingston.
An advertisement in Boothby's Almanac of 1867 for Cobb and Co southeastern run states that the coaches leave Port McDonnell on Sundays and Thursdays. The time for the trip was about 48 hours give or take a few hours pending breakdowns etc., Costs for the trip are listed below............
Adelaide - Wellington 1 Pound Adelaide - Lake Albert 1 Pound eight shillings Adelaide McGreath's Flat 2 Pounds 7 shillings & 6 pence Adelaide -- Salt Creek 2 Pounds 15 shillings Adelaide -- Kingston 3 Pounds 7 shillings &6 pence Adelaide -- McFaydens 3 Pounds 15 shillings Adelaide -- Rogers 4 Pounds 5 shillings Adelaide -- Naracoorte 4 Poninds 15 shillings Adelaide -~Penola 5 Pounds Adelaide -- Mt Gambier 5 Pounds 10 shillings Adelaide -- Pt McDonnell 6 Pounds
Extracts from J.C.Tolley's papers.
by Jim Sykes
- Obsolete By-Laws required women to wear “neck to knee” bathers whilst at the beach even though they were no longer available. Women wearing the more modern bathers which showed their legs and back were ordered by women police to either enter the water or get dressed much to the astonishment of the Glenelg Council and others. There were a number of reports in the “Register” & the “Advertiser” questioning the action of the women police. Some showed photos of women in bathers with comments from the women police as to what they considered to be offensive & which were attractive.
- Penfold Hyland provided a gold award for police bravery. A board was appointed to select a member who performed the most conspicuous act of bravery for the year. In 1933 the award was made to Foot Constable James Aloysius Shannon who recovered bodies from a sewer drain at Hindmarsh. The award was also made to Mounted Constable Brock who arrested an armed criminal in 1937.
- Police pay to all ranks was reduced by 10% on 10th January.
- Following a meeting of Police Association members who passed a resolution that they did not wish to enforce Council By-Laws, the Secretary F.C. Fenwick made a statement to the press. The Commissioner wanted him charged with a breach of Regulations “conduct prejudicial etc.” but the Crown Solicitor advised that he doubted if such action amounted to a breach and if it did it was not serious.
- A new Regulation was passed setting out that only single men would be admitted to the police force and they were not permitted to marry within three years of such appointment.
- A number of parties given at Government House by a Butler were frequented by homosexuals. The Butler admitted inviting “Queens” and other undesirables. He subsequently resigned his position and left for England.
Subscription time is upon us again. Whilst fees remain unchanged for 2006, the procedure for renewal of membership will change.
As you are all aware, in previous years a general renewal notice always accompanied the January copy of the 'Hue a Cry'. Whilst this method has worked reasonably well in the past, there have been many occasions where members have not been aware of their membership status, or the payment that was required.
From January 2006, a 'personal' renewal notice will be 'posted' to all members. The notice will indicate your type of membership (single or family) and the payment that is due for 2006 only.
Upon receipt, please complete your form and return it to the Society office, together with your payment, as soon as possible.
In accordance with the society's 'constitution', all subscriptions are payable by the 31st of March each year.
From 2006, the 'advanced payment option' will cease. However, those members who previously took advantage of this option will not receive a renewal notice until their advanced payments have expired.
If a member has any query regarding their membership, please do not hesitate to contact our Treasurer, Tony Woodcock, on any Thursday at the Police Barracks, between 11.00 a.m. and 3.00 p.m. on 8207 4098.
The “HUE & CRY” is Published by the
South Australian Police Historical Society Inc.,
Thebarton Police Barracks
C/- G.P.O. Box 1539