Photograph of recent Mounted Police
taken in December 1915 on the parade ground in front of the steps at
the old Mounted Police Barracks, North Terrace, Adelaide.
L. to R. Standing: Fitzgerald, Coligan, Barrett, Hinton, Jackson. Sitting: Kennedy, Cadd, Cutting, Copp, Hunt.
As previously predicted in my April President's Report the past month certainly was a busy period for the Society, and I am pleased to report a very successful one.
April 21 saw the Police Anzac Service held at the Police Academy, Fort Largs. The service this year was conducted outdoors in fine weather with over sixty people in attendance. I am very much appreciative of the strong number of Society members and friends who were able to attend. It was also great to once again catch up with Ken and Shirley Phillips. Shirley has been suffering from ill health and it was great to see that she was able to join us. We wish Shirley a speedy road to recovery.
Police Foundation Day was held on 28 April at Karoonda where a police heritage plaque was unveiled by our Patron and Commissioner of Police Mal Hyde and Mayor Burdett. This was to commemorate the death of Senior Constable Pannell who was murdered in the execution of duty in 1957. To say that the day was a success in every aspect is an understatement. Held in perfect weather the activity was attended by about three hundred people, including a large contingent of Society members and friends, members from the local community and Mrs Pannell and family. Many thanks to Owen Bevan for being master of ceremonies, to our Vice President Geoff Rawson for presenting the historical address, to our ‘coach captains’ Bob Job and Frank Connor and to the event organiser Bill Rojas, all who made the day an outstanding success. I have been overwhelmed by the many complimentary comments received, with many heralding the day as “one of the most successful every held”. Also many thanks to the Inspector Paul Dickson, the Acting Officer in Charge of Hills Murray LSA and the current Officer in Charge of the Karoonda Police Station, Senior Constable Justin Cooper and his wife for their great contribution and support. During the service Owen Bevan made special mention of the contribution of Bob Potts to the Police Foundation Day activities and in particular to the Karoonda event. I know that Bob was in our thoughts during the ceremony.
I am also pleased to report that the Society has recently purchased a fully restored motor cycle outfit of the 1940’s to 60’s era. Rex Greig being ever vigilant whilst driving through Murray Bridge to the Police Foundation Day sighted the outfit for sale. After the Foundation Day ceremony the Executive had an impromptu meeting and decided that the opportunity to purchase the outfit was too good to miss. With Rex’s sweet talking to the outfit seller a suitable price was negotiated. The Society had talked for a number of years about purchasing an outfit should an opportunity arise due to their extensive use within SAPOL up until the late 1960’s. The unit is in brand new condition and is a very welcomed addition to the Society’s historic vehicle collection.
During the past week l have received a number of calls from members enquiring about a farewell function for retiring Deputy Commissioner Neil McKenzie. I am able to advise that a dinner will be held on Saturday evening 6 July at Football Park. All are welcome to attend and enquiries/bookings can be made through myself or the Deputy’s secretary Ms Tammy Wilson on telephone 8024 2905. A great is night is guaranteed.
Recently I have been advised that Laurie McEvoy is very ill. Laurie is a Life Member of the Society and past President. Our thoughts are with Laurie, Fay and family and our best wishes and thoughts are with Laurie and Fay.
At our April general meeting it was again pleasing to see so many members and friends in attendance. A special welcome was made to The Friends of the South Australia’s Archives group who attended our meeting and undertook a tour of the Society.
Finally, arrangements are in hand for our June 7 meeting which will be held at the Netley Police Station complex in place of our normal Thebarton Barracks meeting. Ample parking is available at the police station car park off Marion Road. The meeting will include a tour of the new Netley Police Station and patrol base, and the STAR Group facilities. The meeting starting time is as per our usual meetings time of 8 PM. I look forward to seeing you all there.
Regards for now.
The Leader 30/3/1939
5/. for that offence, Councils now
have power to levy fees for minor
After tomorrow, District Council will have power to collect fees in lieu
of fines, for certain breaches of Police Act regulations. Council
Inspectors will have power to collect the fee if an offender is
satisfied that he has committed a breach and agrees to pay the
stipulated amount. Failing this. Councils have authority to prosecute
The new regulation, however, determines the fee to he imposed for
each breach. These include 5/-each for failure to keep to left of a
traffic dome, improper parking or ranking, riding a cycle without
an effective brake or lacking a bell, riding on a footpath or taking
short cuts across any public lawn or flower garden and other
such like offences. The fee for keeping an unregistered dog is 10/-.
From “The Leader” - Thursday,
August 28, 1941
Caught either way!
After an Angaston youngster had sped past a Stop sign,
he noticed the Police Officer quietly regarding him and in
response to the cal], went back to explain, but it wasn't easy.
If he admitted he knew he should stop at the sign, he would have
to explain that he couldn't, because his brakes were out of order
(another offence) and if he explained why the brakes were
defective, he would have to admit that it wasn't his cycle
and the owner might be caught.
So he just accompanied the officer to the Council Office and
promised to pay the 5/- and have nothing more said about it.V.H.
(by R. E. Kilimier).
“Each generation imagines itself to be more
than the one that went
before it, and wiser than the one that comes after it.”
George Orwell (1903 - 1950)
The reasons for changes in organisation and policing methods are not always obvious at the time they occur, and often have difficulty in gaining acceptance. It is perhaps fitting that some of these changes are recorded. This article focuses on some aspects of the numerous changes in the early 1970s.
In 1970, Commissioner McKinna created the Management Services unit, which subsumed the former Planning & Research Branch. This was in response to the initiative of then Superintendent L.D.D. Draper who was appointed its Officer in Charge, with myself as his deputy I succeeded him in 1974, on his promotion to Deputy Commissioner.
For two years from 1970, Management Services was involved ~ an unprecedented review of the organization and methods of policing in the metropolitan and country areas. We went back to basics, even asking fundamental questions such as ~s where do you locate a police station and why?” A world wide literature search failed to find any answer. Original methods1 were developed to find answers to this and many other questions. Training of staff in analytical methods even embraced tuition by academic staff in the of Town Planning at the then Institute of Technology
At this time, under the Dunstan Government, the Adelaide Metropolitan Area was for the first time, the subject of an overall Development Plan, produced by the State Planning Authority. This placed strict controls on land use and introduced Zoning. Together with the Adelaide Metropolitan Transport Study (M.A.T.S.) which provided for a north-south Freeway bisecting the metropolitan area, these were important considerations in the practical restructuring and re-organisation of police, particularly the Patrol element.
Another important element was that of communications and technology in general. In the era before hand held radios and mobile telephones, communication with a patrolman was lost once he left his vehicle. The solution was the development of a talk through transceiver located in the boot of a police vehicle. This, with a hand held unit, allowed communication with Comcen. It is believed this was a world first. We also introduced the Ratel Code and new Call signs to reduce radio transmission times.
Excellent staff were attracted to the unit from all areas of the Force, including the Society’s present Treasurer, Tony Woodcock, and the late Bob Potts. Many of them later went on to fill important roles within the Department. Forward police planning must always include police with operational experience.
1 The techniques are too extensive to detail here. They are fully recorded in the publication, “Report of Planning Operations” a copy of which is held in the Society’s library.
Interesting also was the inclusion of police planners in aspects of planning for the intended new town of Monarto. This embraced the notion of “Defensible Space”. The cessation of large scale immigration and other factors did not see this proposal realised.
In 1974, I accompanied Deputy Commissioner Draper overseas to study policing systems. We were surprised to find that South Australia led internationally in the field of innovative police planning.
The findings of this study were implemented in 1973, coinciding with the arrival of Commissioner Salisbury. For the first time the Patrol function was accorded primacy in terms of service delivery2 and recognition was given to the discrete roles of Office and Enquiry tasks, as well as the need for local intelligence by the creation of Collators. New territorial arrangements, and terms such as Commands, Regions and Sectors were introduced. These new arrangements did much to decentralise the mobile patrols and connect them with other staff in their local areas. This sought to overcome much of the previous confusion in accountability between suburban staff and the largely Adelaide based patrols, and was known as the Sector System. Also decentralised were Traffic and C.I.B. Staff, and the notion of Major Crime declarations was introduced, another first in policing.
A further important innovation from the outset, was the adoption of Data Collection Units (DCU’s) as the Department’s smallest data capturing territory, identical with those of the bureau of Census and Statistics. Also adopted was the 13 period p!anning system for the calendar year which facilitated comparison with like days or even hours of the day. These measures with others, allowed us to relate useful information from other Government sources. Processing the essential internal police data lacked the “realtime” facility afforded by. present day computers, and was labour intensive Some “very ‘capable Woman Police Auxiliaries gave valued support in this area.
This was followed up in 1974, with new designations for Commissioned ranks, based on the British practice, although the title of Senior Chief Superintendent was adopted in lieu of the British ‘Commander.” This was due to the objection by Commissioner Salisbury, an ex British naval officer (Fleet Air Arm) who thought it should be confined to the Navy. However “Commander” was accepted as the rank title in Commissioner Draper's time, bringing it in line with other Australian Police Services.
Management Services also had responsibility for the management of the complex Police Award. first introduced in 1970, including the development of computer capacity and programmes to this end. There were no in house computers at this time.
The new arrangements were not without some angst, mainly due to the unsuitability of buildings into which staff were distributed under the new arrangements. Frankly some working areas were sub-standard and probably would not be tolerated today. However in retrospect, I doubt whether members subjected to these changes would question their necessity today . It is a tribute to the police of those times they tolerated the conditions.
It is now axiomatic that Policing revolves around the Patrol Function and all else is ancillary to this. — This was the first time in S.A. that proper emphasis was accorded to uniformed Patrols.
In 1974, with these arrangements in place, our preoccupation was with country areas, but our attention also turned to other matters. These included an architect’s brief for the design and some standardisation of major police stations. This was the first time police influenced this to any extent. The first police station, reflecting some of these recommendations was Nuriootpa, when the Barossa Valley policing was rationalised. Also initiated was a major review of the role and organization of the Women Police. That is a story for another time.
I also launched a review of the involvement of police in domestic violence. Our Patrol work studies had shown an inordinate amount of police time was taken up in attending these incidents. However much more study of the problem was required and this was undertaken by Sergeant (later Superintendent) Peter Black. He authored an excellent report, probably the first undertaken into this problem, by police anywhere in Australia. It showed the extent of the problem for both victims and police, and the significant tying up of our resources in dealing with these.
It was evident that police were not only attending to investigate or prevent violence, but also by force of circumstances expending considerable time in calming the protagonists, and giving “advice” to both parties. In some cases they had to stand by while the victim removed her possessions to go to alternative accommodation, or to actually help her find safe accommodation. Police were not helped by their limited powers, or by the tendency for many women to withdraw complaints before the Court hearing.
This was before 1975 when the Commonwealth Attorney-General, Garfield Barwick introduced uniform Commonwealth Legislation in the area of Matrimonial and Family matters, leading to “No Fault” divorce. Prior to this, these issues had been within State jurisdictions, with widely varying approaches. In South Australia, cruelty as a ground for divorce required parch .~f sustained conduct over a lengthy period. One result ~
victim would call police to attend on the slightest pretence, to build their divorce case. Police would often be summonsed as witnesses in these hearings.
It seemed to me that police should only be required to attend these incidents to ascertain whether any breach of law had been committed, or to ensure a person’s safety. This is not to imply that police should not have sympathy for victims of domestic violence, and here I point out that sometimes women rather than men were the offenders. In fact I had the somewhat atypical notion that police were part of the mechanism by which society worked through its problems, and by the very nature of their work, were often best placed to identify the need for support by other agencies. But it was obvious police were not intended, trained, or had the time for that role. The situations often required follow up counselling and obviously called for an input into these situations by an agency and persons able to provide these services, at the critical time, as well as subsequently.
I entered into discussions with the Department of Community Welfare. Up to this point social workers and police seldom interacted. In fact there was a real divide between both. Police did not see themselves as social workers or as part of the social fabric. Social workers likewise disassociated themselves from police and failed to realise the common ground in each others activities. The situation for police and victims was not helped as social workers of that period largely worked week day and office hours, when the need was mostly outside that. Furthermore they expected their clients to come to them rather than vice versa.
However our discussions were fruitful, especially due to the efforts of a senior officer of that Department, Ms Helen Nicholls, who in fact was reviewing their activities. It was agreed something should be done in the matter, and despite some antipathy in both Departments, this led to the creation and commissioning of the Crisis Care Unit. This took the form of a mobile team of social workers, available at all hours, who could respond quickly to police requests for assistance, but equally importantly could ensure proper follow up services were provided for victims. Again this was a first for this country, and the indeed the concept was rare overseas.
This team quickly proved to be compatible with operational police and these arrangements did much to assist victims and to minimize the former distrust between members of both Departments. It was in fact a watershed in our relations. This was in no small measure due to the leadership of Mr. Andrew Patterson, the first Director of the unit, an inspired appointment from outside the normal Welfare bureaucracy. The unit also contributed to police training and in a number of other ways.
About this time the Department received scathing criticism from the Womans Information Switchboard. This was a unit composed of militant feminists formed within the Premier’s Department. It was alleged police did not refer female victims of domestic violence to that unit for advice and charged police with being unsympathetic to victims. I was required to respond.
I pointed out that the role of their unit, and the assistance it could provide had never been promulgated to Government Departments and furthermore their unit was not continuously staffed, especially during public holidays and over the critical Christmas period. I then outlined the difficulties of law and other aspects faced by police in these situations.
I also recommended the introduction of Restraint ‘ Orders and drafted suggested legislation for this, based on the recently introduced British law. I was pleased to see this incorporated in the Justices Act, although neither the Police Department nor I, received any acknowledgement for this initiative. While the creation of the Crisis Care Unit and the introduction of Restraint Orders did not reduce the incidence of Domestic Violence, it nevertheless afforded much needed assistance to victims and some “teeth” to police.
This then gives a small overview of the police planning of that period. Planning of this kind is in the nature of a staff role intended to provide the best environment for operational effectiveness. There is always a perceived dichotomy between Staff and Line, but both are essential. The American Bar Association once defined the qualities central to the Police role as “Intellectual curiosity, analytical ability and a capacity to relate events of the day to the social, political and historical context in which they occur.” These are essential attributes for the police planner. This task is perhaps not suited to all, for the work does not produce quick results and can be grinding in its detail. This has been pithily characterized by my good friend Colonel Guy Fawcett, perhaps somewhat indelicately.
“Staff Officers carry neither sword or pistol.
but do require balls of crystal”
However, if we accept as we must, that it is vital for the Police Service to develop individuals within the Department for every level from Constable to Commissioner, the worth and value of such involvement and experience will be apparent.
THE SOUTH AUSTRALIAN
PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY.
This publication is issued for the
information of the Police only,
who are directed to obey all orders
hereby conveyed, and to use their) utmost exertions /br the apprehension of the parties and the
recovery of the property herein and before described.
WM.. J PETERSWALD,
GENERAL ORDER, N0.4
carries a cane, respectable appearance, for, on the
HOME FIRE SAFETY INFORMATION
The South Australian Metropolitan Fire Service, after considerable research and investigation, believes that the incorrect use of therapeutic ‘wheat bags’ or ‘wheat pillows’ may cause a fire hazard.
‘Wheat bags’ or ‘wheat pillows’ are fabric bags filled with wheat (or other grains). They are heated in a microwave oven and then placed on the body to apply warmth.
Fires have occurred in South Australia and interstate when wheat bags have been used as 'hot water bottles’ to warm a bed. Further instances have been reported where the wheat bags were found to be smouldering after they had been heated in a microwave oven.
Tests carried by SAMFS and other services interstate and overseas suggest that the wheat may deteriorate with continued use and that spontaneous ignition may occur. The likelihood of ignition is enhanced if the wheat bag is insulated with blankets or a quilt.
The South Australian Metropolitan Fire Service recommends that the following fire safety guidelines be applied when using these products:
- Do not overheat ‘wheat bags’. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions.
- Use wheat bags only as a heat pack for direct application to the body. Do not use them as bed warmers.
- Do not reheat until the wheat bag has completely cooled. Reheating before the bag has cooled may be just as dangerous as overheating.
- Watch for these signs of over-use: an over-cooked odour; a smell of burning; or, in extreme cases, smoking and/or charring. Discard the wheat bag after cooling if you observe any of these signs.
- Do not put wheat bags into storage until they are cold. Leave them to cool on a non-combustible surface such as a kitchen sink unit.
For further advice ring the Fire Safety Department (08) 8204 3611,
visit our website www.samfs.sa.gov.au
or call in to 99 Wakefield Street, Adelaide during business hours.
|The “HUE & CRY” is
Published by the South Australian
Police Historical Society Inc.,
Thebarton Police Barracks
C/— Box 1539 S.A. 5083
G.P.O. Adelaide 5001
Gaiway Avenue, Broadview