POLICE STATION ?
We have very little information on this photograph, believed to be the Richmond Police Station.
Late 1930s early 1940s? If any members can enlighten us further it would be greatly appreciated
Another busy month has passed & Christmas is approaching. The Glenelg & Norwood pageants will feature more of our vehicles than in previous years & should be a great spectacle.
The vehicle group has been very busy with all motorcycles in good working order & a cage & ramp has been added to the trailer to assist with transport. Our volunteers have done a wonderful job.
We have also been fortunate in receiving the following donations :
A Trailer load of vehicle spare parts from Andrew Rostan of Truline Wheel Aligners,
a variety of oils, hand cleaners, truck wash, engine cleaners & lubricants from Phil Richardson of Multi Spares & Matthew Wright of Wurth Australia. These donations are much appreciated & will greatly assist in the maintenance of our vehicle fleet.
The museum planning is moving into a more active stage with work on the 4th gallery proceeding. The current work is the history of radio within SAPOL & a proposed crime scene with exhibits and clues for the amateur sleuths. We are seeking a single bed & mattress in reasonable condition so if you have one of these taking up space & would like to donate it please contact the society.
Our monthly meeting on Friday the 4th November featured Sgt Ian Crammond, the officer in charge of the police photographic section, who gave an interesting talk on the use of the photography within SAPOL including the general history of photography. He was also able to demonstrate the latest technology including a digital walk through of a crime scene allowing the audience to view from any angle and position, a house in which a serious crime had been committed, & facial recognition technology using a computer to generate the image of a suspect from various facial features.
It was a very entertaining view into modern technology & well received by the interested audience.
Our next meeting is the Christmas dinner which is fully booked. If you have booked & find you cannot attend, please advise as soon as possible so that someone else can take your place. As this event is being fully catered we need to advise of numbers prior to the event & pay whether those persons attend or not.
David & Loris ROSTAN
We Welcome you …….
Women police in South Australia
Celebrating 90 years
Compiled by Editor Elees Pick ably assisted by Joyce Richardson
In 1965 the Golden Anniversary of the founding of the Women Police Force in South Australia marked the end of an era, rapid & dramatic changes were taking place. Joyce Adeline Richardson was Constance McGrath’s successor & to her fell the unenviable task of stepping across from the old to the new.
Joyce had commenced her career in 1944 as a special constable. The following year she was posted to Whyalla, which, together with Port Pirie, was the focal point from which Women Police covered a huge area of the State up to the borders of Western Australia, New South Wales & the Northern Territory. Living conditions were very basic & Joyce recalls “When my mother visited me & saw where I lived she asked, “Is this the cowshed dear?” “No Mum this is where I live”
In 1951 the women police commenced training at the Police Training College at Thebarton. Instruction was given on a one to one basis & covered Police, Welfare & Licensing Acts, Evidence & Procedure & Police Regulations & Instructions. In 1952 a ‘crash course’, still on a one to one basis, was introduced. The following year, for economic reasons, the women police were, for the first time, included on a six week training course with male officers. They did not take part in drill or physical training. During this period Joyce was the first to attend the driving training course at Thebarton Barracks. A course which included not only driving lessons but practical instruction, requiring the donning of overalls, on how to pull an engine apart & reassemble it.
In June 1961, Joyce was seconded to the Northern Territory Police Force for 15 months, to train the first 5 women recruited to that force. She recalls that it was a’Man’s world : harsh’ On arrival she found that the 5 girls had been recruited from all over Australia & that the policemen were “Waiting for us to put a foot, or even a little toe, wrong, so that they could say we weren’t needed. I was determined not to let that happen.”
One of the first cases, soon after her arrival, was one of indecent assault, in which a man picked up a five year old girl & her 7 year old brother. “She was still bleeding 3 or 4 weeks later. The quality of evidence was better than usual and we, as women, related to the children” Successful prosecution of the case set the scene for acceptance of women police in the Territory.
The Northern Territory newspaper, the Citation, reported that she
“gave our girls a first class indoctrination & proved invaluable in successfully grafting our women [police to the male slanted world of the Northern Territory.”
The 1960’s ushered in times of great change – including controversy regarding the introduction of ‘the pill’, the illegal use of drugs, & The Vietnam Moratorium Campaign. Just as society was changing so was the need for changes in the role of women police. Changes so far reaching that, in fact, the position of Principal of the Women Police was abolished.
From March 1974 Women Police, then training at Thebarton Barracks, were released for duty in uniform. Joyce says “ Times were changing & women wanted to be equal”. WPOs were combined with the rest of the force & became uniformed officers. Joyce designed their uniform.
The new system worked well, although there were limitations. The Motor Cycle Squad, The Mounted Cadre (it is interesting to note that currently the Mounted Division consists of 10 males & 14 females) & Dog Handlers were squads that were seen as male bastions. Interestingly enough, the latter squad being sacrosanct because dogs cannot track with women. The dogs become confused – which lead to many a male chauvinist joke.
The separate establishment of women police was abandoned. Women Police were now to be integrated in the same seniority list as men &, as such, were subject to the same chain of command.
The position of Principal, as taken up by Kate Cocks, was no longer in existence & Joyce was created Sergeant 2nd Grade the first woman police officer to attain the rank of sergeant (she was qualified by examination for the rank of sergeant 3rd grade, but had never been appointed to that rank). Joyce was given the official title of “Women Police Liaison Officer. Her work still encompassed caring for the personal interest of the Women Police, but allocation of their duties came directly from the Officer in Charge of their station or squad. This position was discontinued when Joyce retired in 1979.
Gillian Aspley a former policewoman writes –
“It is a fitting finish that the last Principal has the kindness & altruism of that first woman Kate Cocks”
Passed away 5th October, 2005
Esteemed Member of the Historical SocietyBeryl was a much respected member of the Police Department from 1958 to 1984
PLAQUE TO RECOGNISE HISTORIC SITE OF FORMER
MARRATVILLE POLICE STATION
FOLLOWING IS A COPY OF AN ARTICLE WRITTEN BY THEWith photographs from the Society’s Archives.
KENSINGTON & NORWOOD HISTORICAL SOCIETY HONORARY HISTORIAN BETH BRITTLE
1885: The first Marryatville Police Station opened on or about 1/1/1885 with one mounted constable (and horse) and one foot constable. The site was on the S/E corner of Kensington Road & Clapton Road, ie across Clapton Road from the site of the plaque at 200 Kensington Road. The 1885 premises were leased from the owner (Sir) ET Smith, and had previously been the original site of the Marratville Hotel. This had been a six roomed house in 1857 when its owner had obtained a licence as an inn for it. ET Smith became the owner of the hotel in 1878 and effected some improvements, but in 1881 had transferred the licence to a new two storey hotel on the corner of Kensington Road and Shipsters Road. In late 1884 it was being operated as a butcher’s establishment.
A report on it to the Police Commissioner indicated that ET Smith was prepared to clean up the now eight roomed house, convert the slaughter house into two cells, and do any other modification required. There was already stabling for six horses on site, and the Commissioner was advised that the asking rent of 80 pounds per annum was decidedly cheap. This leased property served as the Marryatville Police Station until 1908 when the purpose-built police station was erected at 200 Kensington Road.
1908: PURPOSE-BUILT POLICE STATION/RESIDENCE of red brick construction and detached double cell block
1971: Closed as a police station 24 November 1971
1972-1991: Police Dept maintained ownership and premises used as a police residence until sold into private ownership cApril 1991
The Police Historical Society report on the building says it had several unusual features compared with other stations and the building design is unique in that it was not repeated again anywhere in South Australia. “Of particular interest is the positioning of the building adjacent to the southern footpath of Kensington Road, with verandah covering the footpath from the front of the building similar to a shop front.” Another unusual feature was that the cells were built on the western side of the allotment and only 15 feet (4.5m) from the fence alignment on Kensington Road, when normally they would have been at the rear of the station. “Were it not for a relatively high metal fence the cell block would be quite visible from Kensington Road.”
It was designed to provide living quarters for a married officer-in-charge (living room, three bedrooms, parlour, and lean-to kitchen), and as it was intended as a two man station, also had a “constable’s room” as well as the “charge room.” At the time it was much larger and more complex than the standard villa type single man police station then being built.
The re-development of the station under private ownership and for commercial use is commendable in that the facade of the building was left virtually untouched and the cell block retained.
Forever associated with the Marryatville Police Station is the story of Constable Hyde.
Just a year after being appointed to the station in 1908 he lost his life in the course of duty when, according to the report of the time, he was shot by “highwaymen” near what is now Tusmore Avenue.
In the evening of 2 January 1909 three men were noticed acting suspiciously in the vicinity of the Horse Tramway Depot/Office on Shipsters Road. They were also thought to be oddly dressed for a warm evening, as all were wearing long overcoats. About 10.00pm Constable Hyde approached where they were “lurking” in the shadow of trees on Shipsters Road and challenged them. The men ran off, pursued by the constable, and near Tusmore Avenue three shots were fired. Constable Hyde was unarmed, but whilst grappling with one of the men another shot was fired, and he fell back, having been shot in the face. The assailants ran off and escaped capture and identification despite a reward of 250 pounds being posted and then increasing to 500 pounds. The crime remains an unsolved mystery. The area is now entirely built upon, but in 1908 consisted largely of open paddocks. A large posse of police, detectives, and a blacktracker scoured the vicinity but all that was found were the bloodstains and a discarded revolver.
Mrs Schuetze, a nearby resident, bravely went to the aid of the constable but was unable to stem the flow of blood from his wound. A shutter was removed from a shop and he was placed on it to be conveyed back to the station, from where he was taken to the Adelaide Hospital. He died several days later, the bullet having passed through his cheek and lodging at the base of the brain, without being able to give any clue as to the villains.
"Presented to the Marrayatville Police Station
by the Hyde Memerial Committee."
Mrs Schuetze’s bravery was recognised with the presentation of a silver tea and coffee service funded by a collection from other police officers. In August 1909 a tree was planted near where Constable Hyde fell, and a plaque installed in his memory. In 1980 the “Constable Hyde Memorial Gardens” were established on the other side of Tusmore Avenue, and the memorial plaque placed there on a new tree.
Assessment books of former Kensington & Norwood Corporation..
50 Years’ History of Kensington & Norwood (1903)
100 Years’ History of Kensington & Norwood (1953)
(both published by K&N Corporation, and information from the Police Historical Society)
The Police Journal of November 1970
Curiosities of South Australia by Russell Smith (Smith Books 1998)
Kensington & Norwood Historical Society Inc
AN ARIEL" ERA
By R. E. Kilimier, A.M.,QPM, J.P.
It is perhaps a historical curiosity that the South Australia Police remained largely un-motorised until post World War 2. Apart from a very small pool of vehicles at the Motor Garage, then in Angas Street, and essentially the province of Adelaide Detectives and senior officers, only country police by necessity, and the Traffic Branch had direct use of motor vehicles in the course of their duties. In the Metropolitan area, the term "Foot Police' had real meaning. The bicycle was a primary means of transport, and extensive use was made of public transport, in particular the excellent tramcar system.
Due to their mobility, & not being confined to restricted territories, the Traffic Police soon became recognised as the uniform "elite" in the Metropolitan area, being the nearest equivalent of the present day patrol officer. Postings to the Branch were eagerly sought to escape the (pun intended) pedestrian duties of the Beat & suburban stations.
By the early 1930's & emerging from the Great Depres¬sion, ownership of motor vehicles by the general population in¬creased significantly. This was accompanied by improvements in roads and technical advances in vehicles. However, it was not un¬til 1937 that Adelaide had its first traffic signals switched on.
Since inception following World War 1, our Traffic Police had been equipped with Harley Davidson or Indian motor cycle outfits. It is interesting to note that the West Australia Police still prefer Harley Davidsons. However, in the early 1930's, an outstanding British motor cycle burst upon the scene which was destined to play a relatively short but significant role in the history of our Traffic Branch. This was the "Ariel Square Four (sometimes referred to as the "Squariel").
A technically advanced machine for its day, it became available at a time when its performance exactly matched traffic policing needs of Metropolitan Adelaide in the 1930's to the im¬mediate post war period. It was, as its name implies a four cylinder machine. Hitherto, motor cycle designers had steered away from idea of fitting a four cylinder motor to a two wheeled vehicle. The reasons were obvious. Set the engine in line with the frame & the wheelbase tends to be inordinately lengthy. Mount it crosswise, & there are width & transmission problems. This is not to say that four cylinder machines were not produced. In 1912, the American Henderson Company produced a large four cylinder "in line" machine now recognised as an early classic. It provided riders with simple starting, smoothness, si¬lence, oil tightness, reliability and generous power to a degree unmatched elsewhere. It achieved great popularity in its day.
The Square Four was a product of the Selley Oak works, a southern suburb of Birmingham, England. The origins of the Com¬pany can be traced back to the 1870's, when it manufactured Ariel bicycles. The term Ariel means "Spirit of the Air." In 1898, the company commenced manufacture of powered transport and their products were used by the British Army in World War 1. In the ensuing period to 1930, they became respected as manufacturers of reliable motor cycles with occasional diversions into the manufacture of small cars. Their motor cycles during this period were side valve, single cylinder models, using the engines of other manufacturers, notably J.A.P. and Swift. It was from this stable another renowned Ariel product, the Ariel Red Hunter, an overhead valve machine with a 500 c.c. motor emerged in 1932.
The Square Four derived from the genius of a young Lon¬don engineer named Edward Turner. Why not arrange the cylinders two by two in a square - two vertical twins he asked himself. That way the unit could be particularly compact, and installation would be no problem at all. One factory after another turned his idea down until finally Jack Sangster head of the Ariel works gave him his chance.
The prototype which emerged was revolutionary. Of 500cc and with a chain driven overhead camshaft, it was a double twin in which the crankshafts were coupled by gears. The drive to the gearbox was taken from the left hand end of the rear crankshaft, which meant the left hand rear cylinder employed a full crank; the other three cyclinders had overhung cranks. So light was the prototype, it could be fitted for test purposes into the frame of the standard Ariel 250cc single. It could be started merely by sitting on the saddle and paddling off. However the more substantial frame of the 500 c.c. single " Sloper" was used for production machines.
The new model launched in 1937 was the result of a major re-design. No longer was it overhead-camshaft, and it fea¬tured pushrod valve operation. The overhung cranks had given way to full crankshafts and these were now coupled by gearing on the left-hand side, instead of in the middle. Two sizes of engines were on offer, (600 and 1000c.c.). The bigger of these, had a power output of 38 b.h.p. at 5,500 rpm. "Ten to a hundred in top gear was the selling programme, and that is exactly what it would do.
During World War 2, production of the Square Four was suspended in favour of a 350 c.c. Army mount based on the Red Hunter. Production of the Square Four was resumed post war, al¬though the 600c.c. version had been dropped. Additionally the factory produced a neat 500 c.c. vertical twin, enabling it to advertise it produced the world's only range of singles, twins and fours.
Behind the scenes, the Ariel Company had been acquired by B.S.A. although the Selley Oak team continued production Telescopic front forks with hydraulic damping, was now adopted, an innovation which had appeared on German B.M.W. machines as early as 1935. The Square 4 engine went on a diet, shedding 33 pounds by the substitution of a light-alloy cylinder block and head. In 1954, it was again subjected to a revamp and emerged as the famous Mark 2 "four piper" with two separate exhaust pipes at each side, sprouting from beautifully finned and polished manifolds.. Compression ratio had been raised to 7.2 to 1 (mainly because better quality petrol was now available) and power output was up to 42 bhp at 5,800 rpm.
The Mark Two represented the ultimate in the Square Four design. The end came in 1958. Good although it was, it needed drastic redesign if it was to hold its own in world markets and the cost of such an undertaking was seen as being too high in the light of future sales.
Yet there was one last flutter which might have saved both Ariel and the Selley Oak factory. In a final swansong the factory produced a prototype straight (in line) four-cylinder. Of 600 c.c. capacity it had an integral four-speed gear box with electric starting and shaft final drive. The machine was enclosed by panels, and in styling it was very attractive and ad¬vanced to the point where it would rank with today's comtemporary machines.
Unfortunately economics and the factory's junior status in the B.S.A. Group resulted in it never going into production. Instead the Ariel turned to the production of a tricycle moped, which to add the ultimate insult in the eyes of thousands of Ariel devotees was given the name of Ariel Three. It was a dis¬mal failure and was discontinued. In turn the B.S.A Company was wound up in the face of the Japanese and German domination of the in¬dustry.
The Square Four in the hands of the S.A. Traffic Police of the day was a very effective tool. As an outfit it could be "U" turned on a threepenny bit and this ability with its superior accelleration from a standing start (despite the baggage of its sidecar) brought about the downfall of many an errant motorist. Regrettably this writer, although he rode Harley, Indian and B.S.A outfits as well as the solo Triumph and B.S.A.,was never privileged to ride the Square Four, although an occasional ride in its sidecar as a Cadet, whetted the appetite.
The Square Four served until just after World War 2, when solo traffic patrols replaced outfits and they were quickly disposed of, although a few of the pre-war Harleys and Indians soldiered on well into the 1950's. The standard suburban station mode of transport became the B.S.A single pot outfit, cursed by many who suffered them, as Fallon's Folly. Senior Sergeant Fallon was brought from the London Metropolitan Police in the late 1940's to set up the Advanced Driving Wing. Due to his personality he was not popular, and there were many who considered he had an undue and unfortunate influence in vehicle selection at the time.
The Ariel Square Four is one of the Classic motor¬cycles, and its place in the history of traffic policing in this state is assured.
The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of the World’s Motor Cycles. Holt, Rhinehart, Winston, New York, 1997.
Great British Bikes, McDonald & Co., London, 1992.
October has once again been an extremely busy month for our dedicated team of volunteers; spending many hours , attending a wide variety of events , supporting the role of the Police Department in shaping South Australia’s history
Jim Sykes conducted Willunga Neighbourhood Watch on a tour of the Museum
At the South Australian Family History Fair at Pulteney Grammar – Jim Sykes again represented the Society with
“Early Policing : The way we were”.
Chris Velling, Holger Kruse, Geoff Rawson, Rex Greig, Kevin Beare, Allan Peters & Tony Kaukas attended the official opening of the first stage of the former Reynella Changing Station– celebrating the day John Reynell landed at Holdfast Bay, aboard the Surry on
the 16th October, 1838.
We were well represented by Marty & Mark Dollman, Allan Peters, Holger Kruse, Kevin Johnson, Chris Velling, Kevin Beare & Ernie McLeod at a very wet & windy Open day for the Port Adelaide/Enfield Historical Society at Sunnybrae Farm.
The “HUE & CRY” is Published by the
South Australian Police Historical Society Inc.,
Thebarton Police Barracks
C/- G.P.O. Box 1539